To be classified as a "true" mineral, a substance must be a solid and have a crystal structure. It must also be an inorganic, naturally-occurring, homogeneous substance with a defined chemical composition. The chemical composition may vary between end members of a mineral system. For example the plagioclase feldspars comprise a continuous series from sodium-rich albite (NaAlSi3O8) to calcium-rich anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) with four recognized intermediate compositions between. Mineral-like substances that don't strictly meet the definition are sometimes classified as mineraloids. Other natural-occurring substances are Nonminerals. Industrial minerals is a market term and refers to commercially valuable mined materials (see also Minerals and Rocks section below).
is the collection of natural bodies that form in earthy material on the land surface. The term is popularly applied to the material on the surface of the earth's moon and Mars, a usage acceptable within a portion of the scientific community.Soil consists of mineral and organic matter, as well as living organisms. Soil, comprising the pedosphere, is positioned at the interface of the lithosphere with the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. Soil formation, or pedogenesis, is the combined effect of physical, chemical, biological, and anthropogenic processes on the geological parent material resulting in the formation of soil horizons.
is all non-domesticated plants, animals, and other living things. Domesticated wildlife are plants, animals, and other living things that have been removed from nature and raised in an environment that is more or less controlled. Domestication, act of taming, or controlling, wild plant and animal species and producing them for human benefit, is performed often and has an impact on the environment, both postive and negative.Wildlife is a very general term for life in ecosystems. Deserts, rainforests, plains, and other areas—including the most built-up urban sites—all have distinct forms of wildlife.
is a statue, building, or other edifice created to commemorate a person or important event. They are frequently designed as artistic objects to improve the appearance of a city or location. Cities that are planned such as Washington D.C. and Brasília are often built around monuments. The Washington Monument's location (and vertical geometry, though not physical detail) was conceived to help organize public space in the city before it was ever connected with George Washington. Older cities have monuments placed at locations that are already important or are sometimes redesigned to focus on one. As Shelley suggested in his famous poem "Ozymandias" ("Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!"), the purpose of monuments is very often to impress or awe. In English the word "monumental" is often used in reference to something of extraordinary size and power. The word comes from the Latin "monere," which means 'to remind' or 'to warn.'
is a tasteless, odourless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is known as the universal solvent. It appears colorless to the naked eye in small quantities. It covers nearly 70% of Earth's surface. The UN Environment Program estimates there are 1.4 billion cubic kilometres (330 million mi3) available on Earth, and it exists in many forms. It appears mostly in the oceans (saltwater) and polar ice caps, but it is also present as clouds, rain water, rivers, freshwater aquifers, lakes, and sea ice. Water in these bodies perpetually moves through a cycle of evaporation, precipitation, and runoff to the sea. Clean water is essential to human life. In many parts of the world, it is in short supply. Significant quantities exist on the moons Europa and Enceladus. Thales of Miletus, an early Greek philosopher, known for his analysis of the scope and nature of the term "landscaping", believed that "all is water."
is any substance, usually comprised primarily of carbohydrates, fats, water and/or proteins, that can be eaten or drunk by animals (including humans) for nutrition and/or pleasure.[Most cultures have a recognizable cuisine: a specific set of cooking traditions, preferences, and practices, the study of which is known as gastronomy. The study of food is called food science. In English, the term food is often used metaphorically or figuratively, as in food for thought.
is the functional and/or metabolic efficiency of an organism, at any moment in time, at both the cellular and global levels. All individual organisms, from the simplest to the most complex, vary between optimum health and zero health (dead).In the medical field, health is commonly defined as an organism's ability to efficiently respond to challenges (stressors) and effectively restore and sustain a "state of balance," known as homeostasis.Another widely accepted definition of health is that of the World Health Organization "WHO". It states that "health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". In more recent years, this statement has been modified to include the ability to lead a "socially and economically productive life." The WHO definition is not without criticism, as some argue that health cannot be defined as a state at all, but must be seen as a process of continuous adjustment to the changing demands of living and of the changing meanings we give to life. The WHO definition is therefore considered by many as an idealistic goal rather than a realistic proposition.
is the process by which an individual is encouraged and enabled to fully develop his or her potential; it may also serve the purpose of equipping the individual with what is necessary to be a productive member of society. Through teaching and learning the individual acquires and develops knowledge and skills.The term education is often used to refer to formal education (see below). However, the word's broader meaning covers a range of experiences, from formal learning to the building of understanding and knowledge through day to day experiences. Ultimately, all that we experience serves as a form of education.
The word culture:
from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning "to cultivate", generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. Different definitions of "culture" reflect different theoretical bases for understanding, or criteria for evaluating, human activity.
is a set of human and social activities and institutions related to the production, distribution, exchange and consumption of goods and services.